was born in Warsaw, but left Poland in 1941. During 1941-47 lived in Turkey, Palestine and Lebanon; and arrived in Britain in 1947. He studied literature and philosophy at the universities of London, Sussex and Oxford. He has worked in broadcasting in Germany, taught philosophy in London, held various posts at The British Centre for Literary Translation at The University of East Anglia, and administered The Hawthornden Castle International Retreat for Writers in Scotland. Publications in Polish include poetry, fiction, an autobiography, essays and translations of English-language poetry. Publications in English include a memoir: Scenes from a Disturbed Childhood; selected poems, The Invention of Poetry translated by Iain Higgins; translations of Polish poetry, drama and philosophy. Due for publication, entitled Firing the Canon are essays on poetry and philosophy. Recipient of various fellowships and prizes, including Rockefeller Writing Fellowship in Bellagio, Italy (1993), German Academy Fellowship in Berlin (1997), and Norwid Foundation Medal for translations of Cyprian Norwid.s poetry (2004). He lives in Wales.